Diamonds

Diamond also is known as the hardest natural mineral resource consisting of carbon elements arranged in a diamond cubic.

Due to its properties and thermal conductivity nature, it is still the most sought-after mineral for industrial applications useful in cutting and polishing tools.

According to mineralogists, natural diamonds are dated to be between 1 billion and 3.5 billion years formed at depths between 150 and 250 kilometers (93 and 155 mi) in the Earth’s mantle, although a few have come from as deep as 800 kilometres (500 mi).

Under high pressure and temperature, carbon-containing fluids dissolve minerals and replace them with diamonds. Studies also show that recently diamonds were carried to the earth’s surface through volcanic eruptions episodes forming igneous rock deposits also known as kimberlites and lamproites.

Notwithstanding, there are other types of diamonds laboratory-grown. Synthetic and imitation diamonds are laboratory-grown from high-purity carbon subjected to high pressures and temperatures in a process called chemical vapor deposition (CV).

Where are diamonds mined

Africa produces the largest quantity of high-quality diamonds in the world (at least 50,000 carats) since the 1870s, however, diamond mining has also been sighted in other parts of the world.

Over recent years, seven countries have led the world in the production of diamonds. Russia, Botswana, Canada, Angola, South Africa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Namibia have all been consistently producing over one million carats per year.

According to the geology website, the dominant producers, numerous countries produce less than one million carats per year but are regular, consistent producers. Australia, Ghana, Guinea, Guyana, Lesotho, Sierra Leone, and Zimbabwe all produce over 100,000 carats of gem-quality diamonds per year and have averaged at least that much for the past decade. This production comes from smaller mechanized mines or an enormous number of artisanal workers in alluvial deposits.

source: geology.com

How diamonds mined

The alluvial diamond mining method is carried out in riverbeds and beaches, where thousands of years of abrasion and natural forces like wind, rain, and water currents wash diamonds from their primary deposits in kimberlite pipes to beaches and riverbeds. Miners build walls or divert rivers to show the diamond-bearing dry river or ocean bed. While workers initially sifted through the sand at the first sight, the method soon advanced, with sand being transported to a screening facility to be more efficiently processed.

Pipe mining allows diamond miners to strike closer to the source—the kimberlite pipes. Pipe mining has two forms: open-pit diamond mining and underground diamond mining.

The Open-pit diamond mining method is used closer to the earth’s surface, as miners remove the layers of sand and rock just above the kimberlite rocks. In contrast, underground mining requires the creation of two parallel and vertically connected tunnels were miners in the top tunnel blast the ore of the kimberlite pipes which falls and collects on the bottom tunnel.

Marine diamond mining extracts diamonds from the ocean bottom. While the earliest sort of marine diamond mining laboriously required a swimmer to gather gravel from a shallow seabed, modern technology granted access to greater depths through horizontal and vertical marine mining. Horizontal marine diamond mining uses a crawler to suck gravel from the ocean bottom to the surface via flexible pipes, while vertical diamond mining uses an outsized, ship-mounted drill to tug up the diamond-bearing gravel.

Where to Buy diamonds

APS & Investments Uganda Ltd partners with local miners in East and Central Africa for diamond supplies. Before exportation, the diamond supplies undergo refining and certification an international diamond grading organization. We also carry out CIF shipments to any port destination.

For more information get in touch with our agent to learn more